Endacea, Inc. - Science
Adenosine receptors are extracellular proteins located on
a number of different cell types in the human body.
They are coupled to intracellular signaling pathways
and activation of these receptors produces a number
of different physiological and pathophysiological effects.
receptors (ARs) have been cloned: A1, A2a,
A2b, and A3. Activation of these
ARs produces the following effects:
- A1 ARs: slowing of heart, depression
of heart contractility, bronchoconstriction, renal
and pulmonary vasoconstriction, proinflammatory cellular
effects, angiogenesis, sleep induction, and antinociception.
- A2a ARs: vasodilation, inhibition of
platelet aggregation, pain at peripheral sites, and
anti-inflammatory cellular effects.
- A2b ARs: hydration of the airway; release of cytokines from human airway bronchial and smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts; anti-inflammatory cellular and bronchorelaxant effects; decrease endothelial permeability.
- A3 ARs: anti-inflammatory cellular effects.
For a thorough and up to date review of ARs, see Wilson CN, Mustafa SJ (eds.), Adenosine Receptors in Health and Disease, Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology 193, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009.